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Title: Pathophysiology of primary hyperparathyroidism
Issue Date: 2000
Publisher: Murcia : F. Hernández
ISSN: 0213-3911
Related subjects: CDU::6 - Ciencias aplicadas::61 - Medicina
Keywords: Parathyroid
Calcium receptor
Abstract: Parathyroid gland is the overall regulatory organ within the systemic calcium homeostasis. Through cell surface bound calcium-sensing receptors external calcium inversely regulates release of parathyroid hormone (PTH). This mechanism, which is voltage independent and most sensitive around physiologic calcium concentrations, is regulated through a 120 kDa calcium sensing receptor, CaR. Inherited inactivation of this receptor is the cause for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH). Parallel research identified the 550 kDa glycoprotein megalin, which also is expressed on the parathyroid cell surface, as another potential calcium sensing protein. Although this protein expresses numerous calcium binding sites on its external domain, its main function may be calcium sensitive binding and uptake of steroid hormones, such as 25-OH-vitamin Dg (bound to vitamin D binding protein) and retinol. In hyperparathyroidism (HPT), excessive PTH is secreted and the calcium sensitivity of the cells reduced, i.e. the set-point, defined as the external calcium concentration at which half-maximal inhibition of PTH release occurs, shifted to the right. Pathological cells have reduced expression of both CaR and megalin, and reduced amount of intracellular lipids, possibly including stored steroid hormones. A number of possible genetic disturbances have been identified, indicating multifactorial reasons for the disease. In postmenopausal women, however, the individual group with highest incidence of disease, a causal relation to reduced effect of vitamin D is possible. An incipient renal insufficiency with age, lack of sunshine in the Northern Hemisphere, and an association to the baT haplotype of the vitamin D receptor supports this theory. This review summarizes data on regulation of PTH release, dysregulation in HM; as well as proliferation of parathyroid cells.
Primary author: Hellman, P.
Carling, T.
Rask, L.
Akerstrom, G.
Published in: Histology and histopathology
Document type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Number of pages / Extensions: 9
Rights: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
Appears in Collections:Vol.15, nº 2 (2000)

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